Sustainability and the Society

Chair:       Francesca Allievi, Finland Futures Research Centre
Time:        Friday 10thJune, at 10:30-12:30
Venue:     Lecture room B3111
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Sustainability as a Goal and Outcome in Finnish Basic Education
Arja-Sisko Holappa
Regional State Administrative Office of Northern Finland, Finland
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Sustainable development is widely recognized as a prior task for societies in the 21st century. Education once again seems to serve as a prior vehicle to reach the ambitious goals of sustainability. Such goals can also be found in Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education. The Core Curriculum is a frame for local municipal and school level curricular processes. This study is based on field research material collected during last curriculum renewal process in 2001-2005 and resent outcomes in the city of Oulu. Local education strategy emphasized the importance of student participation in school and in community. Participation was also one of the key values in organizing the process. Members of school staff, pupils and parents were seen as stake holders in future oriented school improvement process. In the written output of the process, the local curriculum, sustainable development was seen as combination of environmental education and education for citizenship. Resent outcomes, such as childrens’ city council and school certificates of sustainable development show that the values of sustainability were not just empty words. This is a remarkable result of a process where strong neo liberalistic values like individualism and short term economic outcomes were identified.
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Governance and Institutions for Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development in Bosnia & Herzegovina
Sinisa Berjan1, Matteo Vittuari2 & Hamid El Bilali3
1University of East Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2University of Bologna, Italy & 3Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy
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Governance analysis focuses on institutions and structures dealing with decisions making and implementation. Governance influences agro-rural development policies impacts on rural livelihoods. Rural economy in Bosnia & Herzegovina (BiH) is increasingly diversified but still has a strong agricultural character. This paper aims at identifying the main public and civil society institutions dealing with agro-rural development policies in Republika Srpska (RS) and BiH and at analyzing relationships and linkages between them and with international organizations. Recommendations have been made to improve coordination between involved institutions. Paper is based on primary information collected by questionnaires and semi-structured interviews carried in summer 2010 with representatives of public and civil institutions as well as an extended secondary data analysis. Vertical coordination between State level institutions with entities, cantons, regions, municipalities and non-state actors, especially civil society ones, is still particularly challenging in BiH. Coordination between the State Ministry of Foreign Trade; Ministries of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management (MAFWM) of RS and Federation of BiH and the Department for AFWM of Brcko district is crucial. Participation of civil society organizations in rural development policies design and evaluation should be encouraged. Effectiveness of vertical coordination also depends on horizontal co-ordination at RS and FBiH levels.
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Key words: governance, rural development, Republika Srpska.
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Wrong Policies and Negative Development: Anti-Sustainability
Majid Mokhtaridoust1, Mehdi Damaliamiri1 & Firouzeh Akbari2
1Buali Sina University, Iran & 2Islamic Azad University, Iran
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After the Islamic revolution in Iran 1978, the motto of justice for all became the rubric of governments in different aspects of life. As most of the population lived in rural areas having suffered from poverty, ignorance and lack of facilities, the attention was paid more and more to these areas to balance the distribution of wealth and resources. In the first attempts, there were built roads from the cities towards the village to facilitate the transportation and transmission of agricultural goods and products. Meanwhile, the focus on education necessitated the governments to establish rural schools and send teachers from cities to villages to teach. The establishment of health centers and local hospitals in the villages was among the initiatives performed nation-wide to spread health for villagers. Every thing on the paper was straight and true. After a decade, there appeared great problems for all of the population and the government. In fact, the policies of government in the realm of sustainable development for rural areas became destructive and the trend of development became reversed. Most of the villagers found the village intolerable and tried to find a position in the cities in the hope of a higher status. On the other hand, allocation of university seats for remote area dwellers and villagers pushed a lot of students toward the cities. These persons never dreamt of returning to their village to continue their parents` occupation and practically the farms and villages became deserted. Supportive policies of governments in medicine and education could not solve the problem and the trend of migration from villages to the cities grew faster than ever. Rural population became less and less and agricultural system underwent a great harm. The only thing which could be in favor of development was a transition from rural architecture toward luxurious life and buildings which had no compatibility with traditions. This paper scrutinizes the trend of social development toward the sustainability in rural areas of Iran in three decades.
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Keywords: agriculture, development, education, facilities, villagers
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Land Use for Energy and Food Production – Challenges of Case Studies Analysis
Francesca Allievi & Jenny Turunen
Finland Futures Research Centre, Finland
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Global land use is becoming increasingly competitive because of population growth, economic growth and climate change mitigation actions. More agricultural land is required to produce food for the growing populations, while rising living standards increase the demand for meat. At the same time vast tracts of land are reserved for bioenergy production to fight climate change. Land is becoming a scarce resource and integrated land use planning becomes increasingly important. However, food and energy production are not always competing for the same land resources and also synergies exist. Profound understanding about the patterns of land use for food and energy production at different spatial and temporal scales is needed in order to develop sustainable land use planning methods and tools. This paper analyses the role of practical case studies in the development of Spatial Decision Support Systems based on GIS (Geographical Information System).The selection criteria for different kinds of cases of land use and the challenges of case study selection are discussed. The framework derived from these criteria is also presented. 
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A Conceptual Framework for Life Cycle Thinking in Transitions toward Sustainable Waste Management
David Lazarevic1,2, Nicolas Buclet3 & Nils Brandt1
1Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden 2Université de Technologie de Troyes, France & 3Université Pierre Mendès, France
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As society continues its pursuit of sustainable development, the importance of resource efficiency and waste management has become increasingly recognised. As a consequence, a number of European policies implement the concept of life cycle thinking in order to reduce the negative environmental impact of waste management systems. The benefit of life cycle thinking is that its holistic perspective allows one to account for the environmental impacts/benefits of not only the waste system but connected systems, such as energy and material production. However, the current use of life cycle thinking in waste management policy and long-term strategy has been called into question regarding its ability to facilitate a transition toward sustainable waste management.
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This paper presents a conceptual framework for the use of life cycle thinking as a tool in sustainability transitions. It draws on the multi-level perspective (transition theory) and the concept of conventional regimes (economics of conventions) in order to give a new perspective on the relationship between life cycle thinking and sustainable waste management.
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